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RARE EARTHS
blacksheep
post Posted: Dec 10 2018, 07:58 PM
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Importance of rare earth metals mining makes it into COP24
Valentina Ruiz Leotaud |
QUOTE
In a series of talks that took place within the COP24 summit in Katowice, Poland, defenders of the circular economy highlighted the importance of including mining of rare earth metals into their discussions.

Based on a research document focused on the Netherlands and prepared by consulting and venture building firm Metabolic, the experts agreed that resources are the missing link in the climate debate. In their view, this is a mistake because rare earth metals are needed to build enough solar panels and wind turbines to meet the Paris Climate Agreement targets.

In detail, the report found that achieving such goals requires major inputs of iron and steel for the foundation and shaft of wind turbines. At the same time, elements such as silicon, copper, lead, and zinc are needed. However, their supply is more or less guaranteed given that they have been used in large quantities for decades.

Other metals, such as neodymium, terbium, indium, dysprosium, and praseodymium, would need to be mined in larger quantities and production would need to grow as much as 12-fold by 2050 compared to today’s output.

Besides being key components of wind turbine and solar technologies, these metals are used in electronic equipment like hard drives, loudspeakers, and LCD-screens.

Neodymium, for example, is used for permanent magnets in wind turbines and in electric vehicles. Using the Netherlands’ demand as a case study, the document states that the country will have about 1.2 million electric cars in 2030, resulting in an average demand of 100,000 electric cars per year. With a neodymium demand of 1.46 kg per car, the result is a total demand of 146 tonnes per year. In other words, the Dutch demand for neodymium – only related to the energy transition – would amount to 4% of the global annual production.

Just focusing on electric vehicles, Metabolic expects total lithium and cobalt demand to increase by a factor of 25 towards 2050.

Keeping these forecasts in mind, the consultancy proposes the idea of developing a European mining industry, given that the continent is almost completely dependent on foreign supply of critical metals, despite the fact that it hosts some reserves.

The report also suggests enabling the production of renewable electricity with a smaller demand for critical metals and increasing circular design and recycling efforts by embedding circular design principles into the production of wind turbines and PV panels, to enable future reuse of components and materials at end-of-life.

http://www.mining.com/importance-rare-eart...ng-makes-cop24/

The full research report - https://www.metabolic.nl/publications/metal...on-netherlands/
Attached File(s)
Attached File  Demand_768x678.png ( 256.35K ) Number of downloads: 1

 




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The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
nipper
post Posted: Nov 30 2018, 07:52 AM
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Supplies of a rare metal critical to building electric cars, smartphones and modern wind turbines will be boosted, after researchers identified a way to find new reserves of the mineral dysposium.

QUOTE
James Cook University (JCU) scientists from Townsville have uncovered the geological origins of dysprosium, a valuable rare earth mineral currently being mined in remote Western Australia....

"Dysprosium in particular is an essential component for magnets for turbines and electric motors," "Adding a little bit of dysprosium to the magnet allows the magnetism to be retained, even at very high temperatures."

Drilling samples came from Northern Minerals' Browns Ridge project, a mining lease covering some 3,500 square kilometres of the Tanami Desert east of Halls Creek and across the Northern Territory border. Dated to 1.65 billion years ago, analysis of the rock has provided clues about geological sites likely to contain further deposits of the metal, often associated with uranium ore.

PhD student Teimoor Nazari-Dehkordi said the find would diversify known deposits of the important metal, currently controlled by China, which produces 98 per cent of the world's supply. "Now we are at a position where we can say these are really new deposits, no-one expected before," he said. "We've shown that a large proportion of northern Australia has potential to contain these minerals."

Most global rare earth mineral production occurs in clay soils related to ancient magma flows, but Mr Nazari-Dehkordi said the ores at Browns Range formed in a completely different way.

"We believe that these deposits are not related to any magmatic activities in the local area," he said.....
https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2018-11-3...sector/10562460



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Nopoo
post Posted: Nov 22 2018, 02:49 AM
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Wall Street Researcher Says this Stock Doubled In 90 Days


#lithium #stocks, #Clayton #Valley #investing


http://www.wallstreetresearcher.com/JFORMATS/NRM.html




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Nopoo
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Nov 17 2018, 12:47 PM
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Rare earths: Hong Kong conference reveals efforts to reduce rare earths in permanent magnets
QUOTE
Roskill view
As the market tightens and neodymium prices rise, it is possible that automotive manufacturers will consider alternative drive train technologies that do not require rare earth magnets. Delegates spent much time deliberating the exact point at which prices might scare away consumers. Most agreed that the pinch point would come when neodymium approaches US$100/kg, while others thought the auto industry could accept prices as high as US$110/kg.

Although NdFeB magnets offer the highest efficiency and best performance for their size and weight, alternatives—specifically induction motors—offer the potential for better long-term price stability. Tesla was unafraid to use induction motors in its Model X and standard Model 3 designs but has switched to a NdFeB permanent magnet motor for its new Model 3 Long Range vehicle. Although such substitutions can be made in response to changes in raw material costs, it is worth remembering that drive train development takes many years and is unlikely to be changed once established for a particular model. Automotive companies must guard against short-term price rises from early on in a vehicle’s design.

Several delegates spoke about a return to the use of terbium in NdFeB magnets. Terbium had previously been removed by most major manufacturers because of its competitive use in phosphors, but the phosphors market has all but disappeared in the past five years and it is now likely that producers, especially in China, are taking advantage of low-cost terbium stocks. Terbium can be used to increase coercivity in the same way as dysprosium.

During the week of the Metal Events conference, Roskill also travelled to Baotou in Inner Mongolia and met with the leading rare earth producers and industry associations. While the rest of the world is focused on Chinese production quotas for rare earth producers as a potential limiting factor for the industry, the Chinese manufacturers of downstream products appear to be much less concerned about a shortage to meet demand. There is no official data on the availability of Chinese stockpiles of neodymium or dysprosium.


read more - https://roskill.com/news/rare-earths-hong-k...manent-magnets/



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The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Oct 25 2018, 11:09 AM
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China cutting rare earth output, unnerving global manufacturers
Reuters | about 6 hours ago |
extract
QUOTE
The Chinese government is limiting domestic production of rare earth minerals in the second half of the year, a move likely to crimp international exports and send prices for the critical materials soaring, according to data from Adamas Intelligence.

China is by far the world's largest producer and consumer of rare earths, a group of 17 elements used to make electric vehicles and consumer electronics. The move is already forcing manufacturers to scour the globe for alternative supplies.

read more - http://www.mining.com/web/china-cutting-ra...-manufacturers/



--------------------
The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Oct 7 2018, 06:34 PM
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Hot Economic Warfare: Scrambling For Rare-Earth Minerals
QUOTE
Nations around the world are scrambling to secure reserves containing rare earth minerals. China, where one-third of the planet’s rare earth minerals are currently found, has severely restricted the export of the minerals to friends and competitors. One of the largest known reserves of rare earths is the Bayan Obo deposit in China’s Inner Mongolia.

China’s export restrictions have sent nations around the world on search missions to secure both known and untapped rare earth deposits. One such mother lode of rare earth minerals has been discovered in the eastern southern Pacific Ocean. The estimates are that the deep ocean region contains twice the amount of rare earths than found in China.

Some of these deposits are in undersea geologically active zones, where deep sea floor vents spew rare earth minerals from expulsions of lava and hot gases. The discovery that the South Pacific region is rich in rare earths has led European nations, including France and Britain, which maintain colonies in the area, re-staking their colonial footprints.

France, for example, is reticent to grant further autonomy or independence to New Caledonia, where an independence referendum is scheduled for November 8, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna. Similarly, Britain has showed a renewed interest in the Pitcairn Islands, where a handful of descendants of the HMS Bounty mutineers continue to live.

In 2015, Australia stamped out self-government of Norfolk Island, turning the island into a hybrid municipality of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. New Zealand has vetoed ambitions by two of its elf-governing “associated states” – the Cook Islands and Niue – for full membership in the United Nations. For these colonial powers, it is not what is about what lies above the sea – island resorts – but what lies under the sea within the marine borders of the territories and that is rare earth minerals.

With the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, rare earth reserves have been discovered in Greenland, a “self-governing” territory of Denmark. Moves by the Greenland government to seek independence from Denmark and permit Chinese companies to mine rare earth minerals have met with stiff opposition from Denmark, the United States, and NATO.

Other countries possessing significant deposits of rare earths include India, Russia, Vietnam, Malaysia, South Africa, Australia, Canada, Brazil, and the United States. These nations, as well as China, all have varying degrees of the necessary political, economic, and military might to protect their rare earth resources.

However, some developing nations, where rare earths have been discovered, are candidates for ruthless exploitation by multinational firms, some under the direction of governments, to secure exclusive mining rights. In fact, Toyota, which has a tight relationship with the Japanese government, bought a rare earth mine in Vietnam to ensure such exclusivity rights.

Japan may not have to worry about Vietnam as its major source of rare earths. Earlier this year, a deposit of some 16 million tons of rare earth mineral oxides was discovered in deep sea mud located 1150 miles southeast of Tokyo. The deposit contained much of the rare earths upon which Japan’s consumer electronics industry is reliant: yttrium, dysprosium, terbium, and europium.

In countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, columbite-tantalite, a mineral used in the manufacture of semi-conductor chips, is such a hot commodity that rival warlords, some acting on behalf of outside players, including Rwanda, Uganda, Israel, Japan, China, and the United States battle one another for control of the mineral’s extraction and export.

The Rwanda Mines, Petroleum, and Gas Board signed a deal in 2017 with a major Japanese rare earth extraction firm for the exploration and mining of rare earths, as well as tungsten, in Rwanda. However, Rwandan President Paul Kagame is known to have backed fellow Tutsi rebels in the DRC, who exploit rare earth mines in South and North Kivu provinces and send the stolen minerals to Rwanda. There have been attempts to curtail the trade in “conflict minerals” in the Great Lakes region of Africa, but they have all come to no avail.

Currently, US and Chinese firms are waging a political and economic influence “war” for access to lithium, cassiterite, and cobalt reserves in the DRC.

Next door to the DRC, in civil war-ravaged Burundi, there was a discovery of exceptionally high-grade “main vein” of rare earth minerals in 2017. Burundi, which was once a German colony, saw Germany’s ThyssenKrupp move in to exploit the mineral resources. ThyssenKrupp also began building a processing plant in Burundi. The German government has come under attack from human rights groups that accuse it of backing the German mining venture, known as the Gakara Project, even though Burundi’s president, President Pierre Nkurunziza, was dubiously elected to a third term in office. German business groups have countered with the argument that if Germany was not mining Burundi’s rare earths, China would be doing so.

The French government is not only concentrating its rare earth mining activities in its traditional Francophone sphere of influence in Africa – Morocco, Burkina Faso, Niger, Madagascar, Guinea – but further afield, including the pursuit of joint venture mining activities in Kazakhstan.

In the United States, the Pentagon has recognized the military importance of rare earths. The Defense Logistic Agency's Strategic Materials department is tasked to ensure a continued supply of rare earths to US defense contractors. The US Energy Department tracks rare earth discoveries and mining operations around the world, thanks to a constant infusion of intelligence from the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency. The Trump administration has moved to open US federal wildlife areas, national parks, and other lands to exploration and mining of rare earths to private companies, much to the chagrin of environmentalists and Native American tribal governments.

In a rush to lessen dependence on Chinese exports of rare earths, which have, in any event, been restricted by Beijing, nations and companies around the world have launched a cut-throat competition to gain leverage over the rare earth market. What peaks the interest of gatherers of economic intelligence are references in email, video conferences, phone calls, faxes, and financial documents to such terms as europium, terbium, dysprosium, yttrium, samarium, and other rare earths.

As the world becomes more dependent on high-tech and an “Internet of things,” consisting of computers, mobile phones, appliances, televisions, security systems, automobiles, etc., the economic war for control of rare earth minerals will increase. There is the extreme possibility that economic warfare could turn into shooting wars, as has already been the case in the DRC.

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-10-05/h...-earth-minerals



--------------------
The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 


blacksheep
post Posted: Sep 19 2018, 03:23 PM
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In Reply To: blacksheep's post @ Aug 15 2018, 12:52 PM

U.S. gives rare earths reprieve in revised $200 billion China tariff list
http://www.kitco.com/news/2018-09-18/U-S-g...ariff-list.html



--------------------
The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Aug 15 2018, 12:52 PM
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Rare Earths: China imposes retaliatory tariffs on rare earth imports from the USA
QUOTE
The Chinese State Council Customs Tariff Commission have announced the introduction of tariffs ranging between 5% and 25% on 5,207 tax items, including rare earth ores, compounds, metals and NdFeB products. The tariffs will be applied to imports originating from the USA, which are estimated to total US$60Bn, in retaliation to tariffs imposed in July by the USA on imports originating from China. Rare earth metals will see a 5% tariff applied, rare earth chlorides and quick-set NdFeB magnets a 10% tariff, whilst a 20% tariff will be applied to lanthanum, cerium and yttrium oxides. Other rare earth compounds, rare earth ores and NdFeB magnet powders will see the maximum 25% tariff.

Roskill view: The introduction of further tariffs by China to imports from the USA, though including a wide range of rare earths and containing products, is expected to have a minimal impact on major rare earth trade routes. The volume of rare earth products exported from the USA to China is relatively minimal, with only 1,970t of rare earth compounds and 8t of rare earth metals and alloys traded in 2017 with a total value of US$5.9M. In comparison, the USA reported imports of 14,200t of rare earth compounds and 422t rare earth metals from China in 2017, valued at over US$78M, with significant volumes also exported to the USA via Japan and Austria.

The tariffs applied to rare earth ores and mixed rare earth concentrates may hinder projects under development in the USA, by making them less competitive compared to other operations when selling into China, which has the largest capacity for rare earth processing. As China shifts towards becoming a net importer of rare earth products and the development of a domestic rare earths industry in the USA looks distant, being able to sell rare earths into China competitively will become more important, especially as many offtake agreements for new projects have been with Chinese producers.

https://roskill.com/news/rare-earths-china-...s-from-the-usa/



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The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Jul 12 2018, 01:28 PM
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Trump Tariff List Targets High-Tech Minerals That U.S. Needs
Bloomberg News
July 11, 2018, 12:06 PM GMT+10 Updated on July 11, 2018, 5:39 PM GMT+10
QUOTE
Rare-earths were the subject of U.S. trade contentions before
Cobalt for electric vehicles also targeted in U.S. list

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/201...-that-u-s-needs



--------------------
The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
blacksheep
post Posted: Jul 3 2018, 12:16 PM
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In Reply To: blacksheep's post @ Jul 3 2018, 12:12 PM

Toyota and academics lead hunt for rare earths in Japan
Undersea deposits could be a godsend for industry, but cost is a hurdle
SATORU NIHEI, Nikkei staff writer
July 02, 2018 13:10 JST
https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-T...earths-in-Japan



--------------------
The herd instinct among forecasters makes sheep look like independent thinkers. Edgar Fiedler

If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter. George Washington
 
 


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